Equally, Canada's efforts will focus on prevention and address factors that make individuals susceptible to violent extremist ideologies.
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Terrorist groups adapt their techniques and capabilities to their operating environment. They use new technologies, respond to international and domestic events, and create new organizational structures and capabilities in response to domestic and international counter-terrorism efforts. Canada's approach to counter-terrorism will be flexible and forward-looking to anticipate and adapt to these changes by adjusting counter-terrorism activities and priorities.
To maximize results under the Strategy, it must also address the factors that contribute to terrorism. For this reason, the Strategy seeks to address conditions that are conducive to terrorism through efforts, such as countering violent extremism and Canada's Counter-terrorism Capacity Building Program.
This chapter describes how the Government is seeking to achieve the aim of: countering domestic and international terrorism in order to protect Canada, Canadians and Canadian interests. All four elements contribute to building a resilient Canada. The Prevent element fosters a Canada that is resistant to violent extremism.
The Detect and Deny elements ensure Canada is able to identify terrorist activities early, and that it is a difficult target for would-be terrorists. The Respond element engenders a resilient society able to bounce back quickly when terrorist incidents do occur. For each of the elements of the Strategy, a clear understanding of what is required to achieve success and how Canada's efforts are coordinated and contribute to the delivery of the Strategy, is necessary.
Therefore, the remainder of this chapter sets out for each element:. For an issue as complex and cross cutting as counter-terrorism, many programs and activities contribute to the attainment of more than one strategic outcome, and in some cases, support more than one element of the Strategy. The programs and activities identified here are discussed in relation to the element of the Strategy to which they make their primary contribution.
This figure is an illustration of the aim, principles and framework of Building Resilience Against Terrorism: Canada's Counter-terrorism Strategy. The aim of the Strategy is to: counter domestic and international terrorism in order to protect Canada, Canadians and Canadian interests. Resilience is illustrated as a ring surrounding the sphere to demonstrate that all four elements contribute to building a Canada resilient to terrorism. This element focuses on the motivations of individuals who engage in, or have the potential to engage in, terrorist activities at home and abroad.
Canada aims to target and diminish the factors contributing to terrorism by actively engaging with individuals, communities and international partners, and through research to better understand these factors and how to counter them. The threat from violent extremism is a significant national security challenge. Radicalization, which is the precursor to violent extremism, is a process by which individuals are introduced to an overtly ideological message and belief system that encourages movement from moderate, mainstream beliefs towards extremist views.
This becomes a threat to national security when individuals or groups espouse or engage in violence as a means of promoting political, ideological or religious objectives. The Strategy articulates Canada's commitment to addressing the factors contributing to terrorism, including radicalization leading to violence. The threat of violent extremism does not originate from a single source, but a diverse range of groups and individuals who either actively participate in or who support violent extremist activities.
Fight against money laundering and terrorist financing
For this reason, the Prevent element of the Strategy focuses primarily on building partnerships with groups and individuals in Canadian communities. Working closely with local-level partners will help foster a better understanding of preventative and intervention methods to stop the process of radicalization leading to violence. Two examples of Prevent initiatives which seek to promote government-community collaboration include:. To effectively counter violent extremism, a culture of openness must exist between citizens and government. This will require the Government to share knowledge with Canadians about the nature of the terrorist threat in order to foster a deeper understanding of the need for particular actions.
The role of law enforcement and CSIS is pivotal. They can offer knowledge and analysis of the threat, which can assist governments and communities to develop more effective responses. In this way, the Prevent element requires law enforcement and CSIS to develop strong capabilities in community engagement, including the enhanced language and cultural awareness skills needed to engage with diverse Canadian communities. Some terrorist organizations have developed sophisticated propaganda and outreach strategies. Terrorist groups communicate with people who are potentially susceptible to violent extremist ideology through various media, especially the Internet, which has evolved as a significant forum for violent extremist communication and coordination.
The Prevent element would focus on providing positive alternative narratives that emphasize the open, diverse and inclusive nature of Canadian society and seek to foster a greater sense of Canadian identity and belonging for all. Programs would be aimed at raising the public's awareness of the threat and at empowering individuals and communities to develop and deliver messages and viewpoints that resonate more strongly than terrorist propaganda.
Under the Prevent element, Canada will continue to coordinate its efforts with like-minded countries to stabilize fragile states and limit the conditions conducive to the development of violent extremism globally. Under the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy , member states are to address the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism by strengthening existing programs on conflict prevention, negotiation, mediation, conciliation, peacekeeping and peace building. They also emphasize initiatives that promote inter-religious and inter-cultural tolerance, reduce marginalization and promote social inclusion.
DFAIT has developed projects to work with communities to counter violent extremism in regions of concern, and to promote democratic values. Purpose: to detect the activities of individuals and organizations who may pose a terrorist threat. To counter the terrorist threat, knowledge is required on the terrorists themselves, their capabilities and the nature of their plans.
It is also necessary to identify who supports their activities. Canada does this through investigation, intelligence operations and analysis, which can also lead to criminal prosecutions. Detection requires strong intelligence capacity and capabilities, as well as a solid understanding of the strategic drivers of the threat environment, and extensive collaboration and information sharing with domestic and international partners.
For effective detection, Canada must have strong capabilities for the collection, analysis and dissemination of usable intelligence.
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CSEC acquires and provides foreign signals intelligence SIGINT in accordance with the Government's intelligence priorities and provides technical and operational support to law enforcement and security intelligence agencies. For these organizations the exchange of information with domestic and international partners is crucial.
Millions of financial transaction reports are sent to FINTRAC each year by banks, credit unions and other financial intermediaries, resulting in financial intelligence that assists in the investigation and prosecution of money laundering, terrorist activity financing and other threats to the security of Canada. These measures strengthen Canada's financial system by deterring individuals from using it to carry out terrorist financing or other criminal activity.
To further strengthen Canada's anti-terrorist financing regime, an Illicit Financing Advisory Committee comprised of several federal partners has been developed to identify illicit financing threats from abroad and to develop targeted measures to safeguard Canada's financial and national security interests. In order to detect and address risks to the charitable sector, the Charities Directorate of the CRA reviews applications and conducts audits, as well as collects and analyzes multisource intelligence.
A number of Detect initiatives promote partnership and cooperation in collection.
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For example, the RCMP:. Collection also occurs at the border. Through its Immigration Security Screening program, CBSA, in collaboration with CSIS, can detect the movement of potential subjects of interest as they apply for temporary or permanent residence, or refugee status. CBSA also plays a role in the monitoring of cross-border currency flows, and can seize unreported currency flows suspected of being the proceeds of crime or related to terrorist financing.
Collection activities also occur outside Canada. CSIS conducts security intelligence collection and operations abroad in support of its mandate, and maintains strong relationships with foreign agencies with which it regularly exchanges information on potential threats to the security of Canada. Through the broad range of contacts in its overseas network, DFAIT assesses social, economic, security and political developments that help define a global threat environment. The RCMP carries out extraterritorial investigations of terrorist activity when committed against a Canadian citizen or by a Canadian citizen abroad.
Achieving the desired results under Detect requires cooperation between security intelligence agencies, and federal, provincial, territorial and municipal law enforcement. It also involves international cooperation with close allies. Once information is collected, it must be analyzed to produce intelligence. Government departments and the security intelligence agencies have their own analysis and assessment units reflecting their particular responsibilities. The key organizations within the assessment community are discussed below.
Other organizations provide assessments reflecting their particular responsibilities.
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The Privy Council Office International Assessment Staff PCO IAS plays a leading role in coordinating the efforts of the Canadian assessment community and provides PCO and other senior government clients with policy-neutral assessments of foreign developments and trends that may affect Canadian interests. CSIS combines the information they collect themselves with information from other sources to provide intelligence assessments on terrorist threats. FINTRAC provides strategic financial intelligence and tactical disclosures to the security and intelligence community.
Financial intelligence includes analysis of trends, patterns and typologies, and provides a detailed picture of suspicious monetary movements, establishing complex links between individuals, businesses and accounts, in support of law enforcement investigations and prosecutions of terrorism related offences. ITAC provides comprehensive and timely assessments of the terrorist threat to Canadian interests at home and abroad that integrate intelligence from across departments and agencies and from external partners.
Building Resilience Against Terrorism: Canada's Counter-terrorism Strategy
ITAC is a government resource staffed by federal representatives from a wide range of federal government institutions. Wide department and agency representation provides ITAC with strong institutional expertise, as well as access to the information holdings of their home organizations. An effective approach to counter-terrorism requires that the intelligence resulting from collection and analysis activities be shared promptly with those who need it.
For this reason, information sharing arrangements have been developed to disseminate threat information:. Internationally, Canada has well-established practices for sharing counter-terrorism information with allies, multilateral agencies like NATO and other key partners. Over time, Canada will strengthen relationships with current partners while seeking and developing new partnerships. The Strategy will serve to reinforce security initiatives between Canada and the U.
In order to effectively detect the terrorist or terrorist financing threat, federal government departments and agencies must share information efficiently amongst themselves; with the provinces, territories and municipalities; with Canada's allies and with non-traditional international partners; as well as with private sector stakeholders. Public Safety Canada and the Department of Justice continue to lead the development of legislative proposals to improve information sharing among departments and agencies for national security purposes that are consistent with the Charter and the Privacy Act.
The Government must leverage new technologies to ensure that information required for national security purposes is available to decision makers in a timely manner. The Government is working to upgrade this infrastructure, which provides the tools required by front line personnel and others to share classified information.
Purpose : to deny terrorists the means and opportunity to carry out their activities in order to protect Canadians and Canadian interests.